Is the Syriac Orthodox Church the only church that traces its origins to the Church of Antioch?

No. There are other Patriarchates of Antioch. Following the Council of Chalcedon in 451, the Seat of the Patriarchate was intermittently occupied by adherents of two groups: the one which rejected and the other which accepted the council. By the sixth century, two distinct lines of patriarchs emerged. The Syriac Orthodox line rejected the Greek Orthodox (called Rum Orthodox in the Middle East) who accepted the council.

Around the seventh century, after another dispute in the Syriac Orthodox church, followers of St. Maron in Lebanon formed the Maronite Church whose patriarch also took the title, Patriarch of Antioch. This church later became a uniate Roman Catholic church. In the 18th century, a group split from the Rum Orthodox, joined the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Greek Catholic Church (Rum Catholics). Their patriarch also took the title, Patriarch of Antioch. In the second quarter of the same century, a group split from the Syriac Orthodox Church and established the Syrian Catholic Church, which is in communion with Rome.

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